Specialty Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
MEDICAL NAME DEFINITION RELATED INFORMATION
Acupuncture Technique for treating certain painful conditions and for producing regional anesthesia by passing long thin needles through the skin to specific points. In some cases the needles are used to conduct a weak electric current.  
Adolescent Medicine Treatment of medical conditions in adolescents. Usually this is a child between the ages of 12 and 18.  
Allergy/Immunology Treatment of allergies and management of certain disorders involving the immune system. Asthma, eczema, hives, drug reactions or insect stings

Related specialties: Allergy or Immunology
Anesthesiology Provides pain relief and maintenance during and immediately following an operation, delivery or diagnostic procedure with the use of medications. Pain management
Audiology The study of hearing disorders through identification and evaluation of hearing loss.  
Bariatric Medicine Provides treatment regarding obesity, which includes prevention, control and surgery.  
Cardiac Electrophysiology Electrical activity to assess cardiac arrhythmias. Related specialty: Cardiology
Cardiology Treatment of the heart and blood vessels.  
Colon & Rectal Surgery Medical and surgical care involving the intestinal tract, colon and rectum. Related specialty: Proctology
Critical Care Medicine Treatment of life-threatening disorders such as shock, coma, heart failure and trauma in intensive care units and other hospital settings.  
Dermatology Disorders of the skin, mouth, hair and nails. Dermatitis, allergic disorders, infectious disorders, cosmetic disorders or scars
Electroencephalography Analysis of the electrical activity of the brain. This is sometimes referred to as EEG (electroencephalogram).  
Electromyography Contraction of muscles regarding electrical stimulation. Related specialties: Physical Medicine and Neurology
Emergency Medicine Provides immediate initial recognition, evaluation, care and disposition of patients suffering acute illness and injury in a hospital setting.  
Endocrinology Disorders of the endocrine glands such as thyroid and adrenal glands. Treatment of disorders such as diabetes, metabolic and nutritional disorders, pituitary diseases and menstrual and sexual problems. Thyroid or diabetes
Endoscopy Visual examination of interior structures of the body with an endoscope. Stomach, esophagus and small intestine

Related specialty: Gastroenterology
ENT (Otolaryngology) Care involving the ears, nose, throat and related structures. Sometimes referred to as ENT specialists. Related specialty:  Otorhinolaryngology
ENT (Otorhinolaryngology) Care involving the ears, nose, throat and related structures, including allergy care. Sometimes referred to as ENT specialists. Related specialty:  Otolaryngology
Family Practice Diagnose and treat a wide variety of basic general medical conditions.

Provide initial physical exams and coordinate with specialists if intensified consultation or treatment is required.
Related specialty: General Practice
Gastroenterology A branch of medicine concerned with the structure, functions, diseases and pathology of the stomach and intestines. Stomach, bowels, intestines, esophagus, liver, gall bladder, gall stones and pancreas

Sometimes referred to as GI specialists.
General Practice Practices general medicine usually for all ages. Related specialty: Family Practice
General Surgery Surgical treatment of injuries or disease.  
Genetics Diagnosis and treatment of birth defects and genetic diseases.  
Geriatric Medicine Diagnosis and medical treatment of any condition of the elderly.  
Gynecology (no obstetrics) Care and treatment of the female reproductive systems and associated disorders including menopause. Related specialties: Obstetrics and OBGYN
Gynecology Oncology Medical and surgical care of cancers related to the female reproductive system. Related specialties: Oncology, Gynecology or OBGYN
Hand Surgery Surgery and treatment of hand disorders. Provider lookup see: Surgery – Hand
Hematology Disease of the blood, spleen and lymph nodes. Clotting disorders, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, leukemia and lymphoma

Related specialty: Oncology
Hepatology Study of liver diseases. Related specialty: Gastroenterology
Internal Medicine Medical diagnosis of diseases and disorders in adults. Some Internists sub-specialize in specific medical conditions.  
Lithotripsy The breaking of a calculus, e.g., kidney stone, gallstone, etc. (as by shock waves via a surgical instrument).  
Maternal and Fetal Medicine Care of patients during pregnancy and childbirth. Related specialties: Gynecology, Obstetrics and OBGYN
Medical Genetics Genetically linked diseases and disorders.  
Medical Oncology Diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other malignant tumors. Related specialty: Hematology
Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine Diseases and medical conditions affecting the newborn and especially the human infant during the first month after birth.  
Nephrology A medical specialty concerned with the kidneys and especially with their structure, functions or diseases. Kidney dialysis
Neurological Surgery Surgery related to the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and supporting structures. Related specialty: Neurology

Provider lookup see: Neurology; Surgery – Neurological
Neurology The scientific study of the nervous system especially in respect to its structure, functions and abnormalities.

Disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles and related blood vessels. Most Neurologists do not perform surgery.
Provider lookup see: Neurology; Surgery – Neurological
Nuclear Medicine Use of radioactive materials in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.  
Obstetrics Provides medical care to pregnant women and delivery of newborn. Related specialties: Gynecology and OBGYN
Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) Provides medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and associated disorders. Care related to pregnancy and delivery. Related specialties: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Occupational Therapy Creative activities in promoting recovery,  rehabilitation or prevent disabilities. Usually upper extremities and hand rehabilitation. Related area: General Acute Care Hospital. Most hospitals usually have an occupational and physical therapy department.
Oncology The study of tumors.  
Ophthalmology Medical treatment regarding the eye and its diseases. Vision, diabetes, glaucoma and retinal diseases
Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Surgery of the jaw, face and mouth. Provider lookup see: Surgery – Oral and Maxillofacial
Orthopedic Surgery Specialize in bone, muscle and joint surgery. This surgery can include corrective procedures, such as removing torn cartilage or replacing an entire joint. Some orthopedic surgeons are generalists, but most specialize in specific areas such as shoulder surgery, hand surgery or joint replacement. Bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments and cartilage
Otology A science that deals with the ear and its diseases. Related specialties:  Otolaryngology and  Otorhinolaryngology
Pathology Lab study of tissues and blood to diagnose possible diseases. Provider lookup see: Laboratory Facility
Pediatrician Concerned with the medical, emotional and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Children’s health care
Perinatology The care and treatment of mother and fetus during pregnancy and after birth, particularly for high-risks. Usually this is the period beginning after the 28th week of pregnancy and ending 28 days after birth.  
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Diagnosing, evaluating and treating patients with impairments and/or disabilities which involve musculoskeletal, neurological, cardiology and other body systems.  
Physical Therapy Exercise and physical activity to condition and improve muscles, function and range of motion.  
Plastic Surgery Surgical repair and reconstruction of the skin and related structures which may or may not be cosmetic, yet having esthetic results. Provider lookup see: Surgery – Plastic & Reconstructive or Surgery – Oral/Facial Plastic
Podiatry Disorders and injuries of the foot and ankle. Feet or ankle related disorders
Preventive Medicine Prevention of disease or medical conditions.  
Pulmonary Disease Treatment of diseases in the respiratory systems (lungs and airways). Pneumonia, cancer, pleurisy, asthma, bronchitis, etc.
Radiation Oncology Treatment of diseases by radiation.  
Radiology Imaging procedures such as X-Ray, ultrasound, CT Scan, PET Scan and nuclear medicine. Provider lookup see: Radiology Facility
Reproductive Endocrinology Care and treatment of reproductive and endocrine systems. Infertility
Rheumatology Treatment regarding joints, muscles, bones and tendons. Treats all forms of arthritis, and certain immunologic disorders such as systemic Lupus and Scleroderma.  
Speech Therapy Treatment of speech disorders. Provider lookup see: Therapy – Speech
Sports Medicine Treatment and care of athletic injuries.  
Thoracic/Cardiovascular Surgery Surgical treatment of the chest, lungs, heart and blood vessels. Provider lookup see: Surgery – Thoracic Cardiovascular
Urology Medical and surgical disorders of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate and urethra. Prostate, kidney stones, bladder, urethra or kidneys
Vascular Surgery Surgical disorders of the blood vessels excluding those immediately adjacent to the heart, lungs or brain. Provider lookup see: Surgery – Vascular Surgery